MEANING OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
The typically hierarchical arrangement of lines of authority, communications, rights and duties of an organization. Organizational structure determines how the roles, power and responsibilities are assigned, controlled, and coordinated, and how information flows between the different levels of management.
A structure depends on the organization's objectives and strategy. In a centralized structure, the top layer of management has most of the decision making power and has tight control over departments and divisions. In a decentralized structure, the decision making power is distributed and the departments and divisions may have different degrees of independence. A company such as Proctor & Gamble that sells multiple products may organize their structure so that groups are divided according to each product and depending on geographical area as well.
IT ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
1. Chief Information Officer (CIO)
CIO ensures effective communications between business and IT personnel. A wide function of in CIO is manager to ensure the delivery of all IT project, on time and within budget. Next, leader is the wide functions of a CIO for make sure the strategic vision of IT in the organization. Furthermore, communicator must building and maintaining strong executive relationship.
2. Chief Technology Officer (CTO)
CTO responsible for ensuring the throughout, speed, accuracy, availability, and reliability of an organization’s information technology.
Similar to CIOs but CIOs take on the additional responsibility usefulness of ensure that IT is associated with the organization’s strategic initiatives.
3. Chief Privacy Officer (CPO)
CPO responsible for ensuring the ethical and legal use of information. This role is regarding the use of personal information, including medical data and financial information, and laws and regulations.
4. Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO)
CKO responsible for collecting, maintaining and distribution the organization’s knowledge. Those who hold this position have to manage intellectual capital and the custodian of knowledge management practices in an organization.
5. Chief Security Officer (CSO)
The CSO generally serves as the business leader responsible for the development, implementation and management of the organization’s corporate security vision, strategy and programs. They direct staff in identifying, developing, implementing and maintaining security processes across the organization to reduce risks, respond to incidents, and limit exposure to liability in all areas of financial, physical, and personal risk; establish appropriate standards and risk controls associated with intellectual property; and direct the establishment and implementation of policies and procedures related to data security.
Ethics is the principle and standards that guide our behaviour toward other people.
Descriptive ethics is exactly that a description of "what is" in the land of business ethics. This perception seeks to recognize moral & ethical systems shared by people, cultures, and societies. This form seeks to know prevailing views and actions about ethical performance. One problem to this school of thought is that using this perspective may lead one to believe that an actual unethical behaviour is satisfactory because "everyone is doing it."
Issues Affected By Technology Advances :
i) Intellectual property - Intangible creative work that is personified in physical form.
ii) Copyright - The legal protection afforded an expression of an idea, such as a song, video game, and some types of proprietary documents.
iii) Fair use doctrine - In certain situations, it is legal to use copyrighted material.
iv) Pirated software - The unauthorized use, duplication, distribution, or sale of copyrighted software.
v) Counterfeit software - Software that is manufactured to look like the real thing and sold as such.
a. Security is a major ethical issues.
b. The right to be left alone when you want to have control over your own personal possessions and not to be observed without your consent.